Introduction to SQL


This course is an introduction to the SQL database language. After this course the student will be able to use SQL to define, manipulate and control access to their data. The course thoroughly covers SQL syntax and facilities.

The course begins with a general introduction to databases, including the principles of relational databases. Data retrieval is discussed in depth, covering all of the pertinent features of SQL, including joins. Data Manipulation Language is covered, including inserting, updating and deleting data. Transaction control and locking is discussed. Data Definition Language is covered, including creating, altering and dropping tables, and the use of integrity constraints. Views and indexes are covered. The course includes detailed coverage of Data Control Language. The course concludes with an introduction to the principles of relational database design.

The material is generic to SQL. An appendix provides a survival guide to working with Microsoft SQL Server. The student will receive a Student Guide containing complete course notes with a lab manual containing very complete write-ups of laboratory exercises and solutions. A file provides a setup script for the class database. All courseware software is available for download.

General familiarity with computers and data processing.

Course Objectives
  • Introduction to Databases - their purposes and terminology
  • Gain an in-depth understanding of SQL - concepts, syntax, uses
  • Use SQL hands-on to access a database

Intended Audience
This course may prove useful to people such as application developers, business managers, and users who need to develop SQL statements.

Next Steps
Students completing this course may wish to further their knowledge with or some of the vendor-specific courses listed in the catalogue.

3 days

Instructor-led course, with many practical computer-based exercises.

Course Outline

1. Introduction to Databases

  • Database
  • Files or Tables
  • Database - Further Properties
  • Metadata
2. Relational Databases
  • Relational Database
  • Example of a Relation
  • Relational Operations
3. Introduction To SQL
  • History of SQL
  • Data Definition Language
  • Tables
  • Schemas
  • Views
  • Data Manipulation Language
  • Find Data
  • Insert, Update and Delete Data
  • Data Control Language
  • Grant and Revoke
  • Commit and Rollback
  • Non-Procedural Language
  • SQL Datatypes
4. Table Creation
  • Create Table
  • Column Constraints
  • Keys
  • Default Values
  • References and Check Clauses
  • Additional Constraints
  • Foreign Keys
  • Populating A Table
  • Insert Statement
  • Inserting Into a Table through a Query Specification
5. Finding Data In Tables - Part I
  • Select Statement
  • Where Clause
  • Predicates
  • Boolean combinations
  • SQL "Truth" Tables
  • Boolean Precedence
  • Two Value Rules Retained
  • Between Predicate
  • In Predicate
  • Outer Reference
  • Exists Predicate
  • Quantified Predicate
6. Finding Data in Tables - Part II
  • Joins
  • Cross Product Joins
  • Equ-Join
  • Outer-Joins
  • Left Outer Join
  • Union, Intersection, and Difference
  • All Keyword
  • Order By
  • Multiple Column Order Bys
7. Finding and Updating Data in Tables
  • Aggregate Functions
  • Table for Aggregates
  • Aggregate functions, examples
  • Aggregate Function Rules
  • Group By
  • Having Cause
  • Views
  • Normalized Tables and Views
  • Combined View
  • Views and Security
  • Drop View
  • Update
  • Assignments
  • Delete
  • Updateble Views
8. More Data Definition Language
  • Drop Table
  • Alter
  • Create Index
  • Index Speedup
9. Data Control Language
  • Data Control Language
  • Grant
  • Reference Privileges
  • Revoke
  • Abandoned Privileges
  • Transaction
  • Commit and Rollback
  • All material following in chapter is specific to Microsoft
  • Transactions and Microsoft
  • SQL Server Locks
  • Locking Granularity
  • Shared, Exclusive and Update Lock
  • Intent, Extent and Demand Locks
  • Demand locks
  • sp_lock
  • Deadlock
  • ISQLW and Transactions
  • ISQLW and set statements
  • Read Commited
  • Read Uncommited
  • Repeatable Read
  • Other Table Qualifiers
10. Introduction to Relational Database Design
  • One-To-One Relationships
  • One-To-Many
  • Many-To-Many
  • Normal Forms
  • First Normal Form
  • Second Normal Form
  • Third Normal Form
Appendix A. Lab Manual Appendix B. SQL Server Survival Guide
  • SQL Server
  • Enterprise Manager
  • Query Analyzer
Appendix C. Reading List
Hardware and Software Requirements
A computer with any SQL-92 compliant database should be sufficient for most of the material in this course, although a small amount of the course material is specific to Microsoft.

Go to course catalogue